Uranus and Enceladus come first

collect document 522 White papers Presented by scientists from NASA universities and research institutes around the world. This report provides recommendations for the science missions of NASA, the National Science Foundation, and other government agencies for the next decade.

Chair the committee for this edition Davis SmithSenior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (SSB) at NASEM; Philip ChristensenH ., Professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) Arizona State University (ASU) Robin Canopyassistant vice president of the Division of Space Science and Engineering at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), part of NASA’s Planetary Science Directorate (PSD).

The proposals are divided into Six categories, following the macro topics that make up the Ten Year Survey. These include the small bodies of the solar system, giant planet systems, Venus, ocean worlds, dwarf planets, Mars, Mercury and the Moon. In general, the committee identified twelve scientific priority questions divided into three categories: assetsAnd worlds and operations And life and housing.

Robin Canopus said in a press release:
This report summarizes an ambitious but viable vision for advancing the frontiers of planetary science, astrobiology, and planetary defense over the next decade. This recommended set of missions, high-priority research and technological development will lead to transformative advances in human knowledge and understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, and the life and potential for extraterrestrial habitability of other bodies.to”.

These recommendations will Large Strategic Science Missions (LSSM) NASA in the next decade, that is, they will be the guiding principles for the next “major missions” of the agency.

The most important missions

to task Uranus High priority is set. This task, known as Uranus Probe and Probe (UOP)it will send a probe into the planet’s atmosphere to follow a multi-year orbital tour and study the ice giant and its system.

The UOP was first recommended in 2011 as part of the Decadal Survey of Planetary Science “Visions and Voyages” (2013-2022) and is planned to be launched between 2020 and 2023, followed by a 13-year cruise to Uranus. However, it had lower priority than missions to Mars (the Persevering Rover) and the Jovian System (Europa Clipper). Now, if NASA decides to fund this mission proposal, the spacecraft will be launched inearly thirties In conjunction with a favorable alignment of the planets.

Another major suggestion is the task Enceladus Urbilander, an orbiter combined with a surface lander that will study gas plumes and energetic particles emitted from the south polar region of Saturn’s moon. Obviously, one of the main goals is the search for biosignatures.

New Frontier Program

In addition to the main tasks, the survey identifies several tasks of medium priority. This program requires that missions of a special nature be selected through a competitive and cost-effective process. Juno, New Horizons, and OSIRIS-REx also belong to this category. The commission chose several other expeditions to explore many of the “ocean worlds“of the solar system. This includes the mission to bring the hero back from Ceres; Europe Clipper And Europa lander, who will travel to the Jovian system over the next decade to examine Europa’s surface and spring activity for possible signs of life. Eight other small missions have been added to these missions: an orbiter and a lander to return a comet sample to Earth, an orbiter around Enceladus, a lunar geophysical network, a probe on Saturn, an orbiter on Titan and an on-site Venus lander. Explores.

Mars exploration

With regard to future exploration missions to Mars, the commission confirmed that it gave the mission the highest priority Mars Sample Return (MSR)A joint effort of NASA and the European Space Agency.
The Perseverance Chariot is collecting samples from the Jezero Crater, a former lake basin with a channel system carved into the Noachian strata. The distinct types of sedimentary, igneous, hydrophobic and shock-forming rocks accessible in this region will provide a geological record for a time interval particularly important for understanding the ecological evolution and possibly biology of Mars.We read in chapter 22 of the report.The return of the sample will provide unrepresented geological materials among the Martian meteorites whose volatile, organic and secondary mineral composition has not changed due to the impact … Moreover, the return of the sample will allow for future analysis using tools and techniques not yet developed. As in the case of the Apollo samples taken from the moon“.

One task is also given priority Mars Life Explorer (MLE)which would be based on NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP), which the report defines as “Scientific success story“.

Lunar Discovery and Exploration Program (LDEP)

Another major priority relates to NASA’s plans to send manned missions to moon In the near future ( Artemis program) and related lunar activities. Given the ambitious goals, which include sustainable plans for lunar exploration, “the report stresses that massive investments and research and development are now required to”Enabling and improving high-priority lunar science activities with humans“.

According to the document, the task of returning the sample should be given top priority endurance-a Which is expected to introduce a mid-class lunar rover in the Middle East Aitken Basin To the south pole of the moon through the program CLPS (Commercial Lunar Payload Services)Missions carried out by NASA in cooperation with commercial partners. The robot will collect samples that will then be retrieved by the Artemis astronauts and returned to Earth.

human exploration

Committee laid outHuman exploration at the fore In light of the important commercial, technological and scientific ramifications, as well as the fact that it can inspire the world and future generations. Therefore, priority must be given to the Moon and Mars over the next decade. This includes the Artemis missions and related efforts to create the infrastructure to support a long-term lunar presence, including the Lunar Gateway and Artemis Basecamp, which are expected to be completed by 2028. These elements are also part of NASA’s long-term plans to send a manned spacecraft to Mars. during the thirties. Chapter 19 of the report states that scientific activities should be selected to support human flight activities: “A scientific exploration program can be built in this decade where science enables human exploration and human exploration enables science“.

planetary defense

International cooperation should be at the center of global defense efforts against NEO (near-Earth object) potentially dangerous.
Currently, NASA, NSF, ESA, and other government agencies around the world play a leading role in monitoring and studying plans and technologies for Earth defense, and the commission urges them to increase these sensing, warning and mitigation efforts.

So far, there are two priority tasks, namely NEO . Surveyor And Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) NASA. The latter is on its way and will encounter a binary asteroid 65803 Didymos by the end of the year, while the former is awaiting congressional approval and will consist of a dedicated mid-infrared space-sensing space telescope designed to detect and characterize most potential possibilities. Hazardous NEOs.

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