The new Covid vaccine against all variants: what we know so far

With the Corona virus constantly changing, scientists are working on a Covid vaccine against all other related variants and pathogens. Where are we.

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The virus They change naturally by replicating themselves in the host, and in the case of severe viral circulation as in the case of covid-19 pandemiccan give life to several Variables, which is also very different from the original strain. there Variable Omicron subordinate Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2for example, dozens of mutations Most of the wild lineage that appeared a Wuhanin China, at the end of 2019. Therefore, it is not surprising that the new strains have greater ability to avoid immune defenseNot only those caused by previous natural infections, but also those caused by vaccines. Furthermore, the currently available Covid vaccines are strictly based on the genetic profile of S protein or rise from the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, while at present the elusive sub-variants of Omicron such as BA.2, BA.4 and BA.5 are highly prevalent. To break the chain of spread and stop chasing the virus, experts believe it is necessary to develop a universal vaccine, effective not only against all current variants, but also against those that may appear in the future and even against other coronaviruses. The dream, which can be fulfilled but not at the door, is a pancreatic virus vaccine Which can prevent future epidemics.

Scientists have been working on this ambitious project for some time and in some cases clinical trials, that is, human tests, have already begun. Among the vaccine candidates against all the most promising variants is the Spike Ferritin Nanoparticle (or SpFN), developed by military researchers at the Walter Reed Army Research Institute (WRAIR) and nicknamed “Moonshot.” The drug is based on a part of the coronavirus S or spike protein (RBD receptor binding domain) bound to nanoparticles from ferritinIt is a protein also found in the liver and bone marrow. The vaccine is fortified with aluminum hydroxide or with a compound called Liposomal Army Formula QS-21 (ALFQ). The universal vaccine has been tested on cynomolgus macaques, and has been shown to effectively neutralize SARS virus (the coronavirus responsible for SARS) and all the major worrisome variants of SARS-CoV-2, namely Alba, Beta, Delta and Omicron, as reported in the study “SARS-CoV-2 ferritin nanoparticle elicits protective immune responses in non- primate humans” published in Science Traslational Medicine. The first human trials (a clinical trial of .) are currently underway level 1) to determine the safety of the preparation. It will take a long time for us to see it available, but it is without a doubt one of the most ambitious vaccine candidates.

Another interesting project is in development at the Gillings School of Global Public Health Laboratories at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Scientists are testing a Covid mRNA vaccine (the same technology behind Pfizer’s Comirnay and Spikevax Moderna) but hybrid. The new syntax is actually designed to hit the subtype transversely Sarpicoviruswhich includes both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, as well as pathogens detected in bat that can achieve species leap (Extension and diffusion) and the start of a new pandemic. The vaccine was tested on rodents, and resulted in the production of large quantities of neutralizing antibodies Against a broad spectrum of S-proteins, as found in the study “Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines protect against Sarbecovirus challenge in mice” published in the official Science journal. According to the study’s co-lead author, Dr. David Martinez, such a vaccine might be able to prevent the hypothetical spread of SARS-CoV-3. The first human testing could begin later in the year.

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The Covid vaccine also deserves attention PreS-RBD Developed by the University of Vienna, prepared by a protein units Designed to reach all variations. Based on a fusion protein consisting of two receptor-binding domains (RBD) to the pandemic pathogen and hepatitis B (HBV), PreS and C-terminal antigen, the tested vaccine in rabbits triggered a strong immune response and neutralizing antibodies effectively reacted against all known variants. “The PreS-RBD vaccine has the ability to induce sterilization immunity to old and new SARS-CoV-2 variants by blocking infection by disrupting virus replication and transmission by blocking cell virus entry,” Professor Rudolf Valenta told the press. release. The Austrian vaccine is based on technology similar to that of another global Covid vaccine under development by French companies LinKinVax The GTP Bioways designed to target specific immune system cells are called Stem Cellswhich perform basic functions with both T lymphocytes who am I B lymphocytesresponsible for producing Antibodies. Clinical trials of the new vaccine, aimed at targeting every known and future variant, are expected to begin by mid-2023.

As recently noted by a world-renowned infectious disease specialist Anthony Fauci, to reach a universal vaccine against the pancreatic virus, it will take some time and we will first move to a vaccine that is effective against all types of SARS-CoV-2. According to Professor Drew Wiseman of the University of Pennsylvania, among the discoverers of the mRNA technology behind the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, a universal vaccine could be available within 2 to 3 years. But, as he explained to AFP, “we will have to keep working on it and change it over time to keep up with the virus.”

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